Heritage OrchardImage: Aleck Hutchinson

The Heritage Apple Orchard at Vineland is the successor to a planting called the "Canadian Centennial Museum Orchard". This orchard was established in 1967 by Dr. Aleck Hutchinson to commemorate the 100th anniversary of Confederation in Canada. The Centennial orchard contained 194 named cultivars and some strains of specific cultivars. A strain by definition is a specific selection or mutation of a cultivar which exhibits some characteristic different from the cultivar itself.

In 1983, it was decided to replace the Centennial orchard with a new and smaller "Heritage" orchard, which would focus on maintaining apple cultivars having commercial importance in the Ontario apple industry in the past and/or present.
Image: Vineland heritage orchard
In 1988, the Heritage Orchard was officially dedicated on the occasion of the Centennial Celebration of the founding of the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food. At the present time, 85 cultivars and 15 strains of apples are included in the Heritage Orchard. Most of the trees in this orchard were planted in 1986. Malling 26 is used as the rootstock. The tree size on this root will be about 40 percent of a tree on a standard vigorous rootstock. The tree spacing is 5 m. in the row and 6 m. between rows, producing a tree density of 333 trees per hectare. The system of training is a modified central leader.

Almost all of the cultivars formerly included in the Centennial Museum Orchard at Vineland are presently maintained at the New York State Agricultural Experiment Station. This New York location has been designated a National Depository for apples by the National Plant Germplasm System of the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture.

The Heritage Orchard has been established to maintain selected apple cultivars which have had a place in the Ontario apple industry of the past. A few cultivars of special interest are also maintained in this orchard. The oldest cultivar in the collection is "Lady" (known in Europe as "Api"), named and introduced from France in 1600. The oldest Canadian origination is "Snow" or "Fameuse", named in 1636.

Cultivars Maintained in the Ontario Heritage Orchard

Alexander (Emperor Alexander) 
Antonovka 
Baldwin 
Baxter 
Ben Davis 
Blenheim (Bleinheim Pippin) 
Blue Pearmain 
Bottle Greening 
Cabashea 
Canada Baldwin 
Canada Red 
Chenango 
Colvert 
Cortland 
Cox's Orange Pippin 
Cranberry Pippin 
Crispin 
Delicious (Original type) 
Delicious 
- Bisbee
- Imperial
- Millerspur
- Starking 
Duchess 
Early Harvest 
Fallawater 
Fameuse (Snow) 
Folwell 
Gala 
Gano 
Golden Russet 
Goodland 
Granny Smith 
Gravenstein 
Grimes 
Haas (Fall Queen) 
Hubbardston 
Hume 
Idared 
Irish Peach 
Jerseymac 
Jonagold 
Jonathan 
Joyce 
Kentish Fillbasket 
King (Tompkins King) 
Lady (Api) 
Lobo 
Lodi 
Macoun

Maiden Blush 
Mann (Deiltz) 
Margaret Pratt 
McIntosh (Parent) 
McIntosh 
- Blackmac
- Macspur
- Marshall 
- Summerland
- McMahon
Milwaukee 
Moscow Pear 
Mutsu (See Crispin) 
Northern Spy 
North Star 
Northwest Greening 
Ontario 
Pomme Grise 
Primate 
Princess Louise 
Quinte 
Rambo 
Red Astrachan 
Red Atlas 
Rescue 
Rhode Island Greening 
Ribston (Ribston Pippin) 
Rome 
Roxbury 
St. Lawrence 
Scarlet Pippin 
Seek-no-Further 
Smoothee 
Spartan 
Spitzenburg (Esopus) 
Stark 
Sweet Bough 
Tolman Sweet 
Twenty Ounce (Cayuga Red Streak) 
Tydeman's Red 
Vista Bella 
Wagener 
Wealthy 
Wealthy Double Red 
Winter Banana 
Wolf River 
Yellow Bellflower 
Yellow Transparent 
York Imperial