Bill Deen

Bill Deen
Associate Professor (retired)



B.Sc. University of Guelph;
M.Sc. University of Guelph;
Ph.D. University of Guelph


Crop Science Building


Long-term rotation trial, established 1980, Elora Research Station, Ontario

Long-term rotation trial, established 1980, Elora Research Station, Ontario

The focus of my research program was to develop agroecosystems that are both productive and sustainable.  Over the years I have studied mechanisms underlying carbon cycling, nutrient cycling and yield of crop production systems as influenced by crop species, tillage system, crop rotation, and cover crops.  I over saw several long-term trials, including a rotation trial (est 1980), tillage trial (est. 1976), and a nitrogen in maize trial (est 2008).  I had initiated research to examine the above mechanisms in bioenergy crop systems, particularly C4 perennial grass production.  In 2008 I initiated a long-term perennial C4 grass for biomass trial (est 2008).

Note: as of October 30, 2020 Dr. Deen has retired and is no longer running a research program. He is no longer supervising graduate students or accepting inquiries.


Relevant Links:

Selected Publications:

Thilakarathna, M.S., K. Janovicek, P. Johnson, D. Falk, A. Navabi and B. Deen. (2017). Frost Seeding Increases Spring Cereal Yield. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 97: 1–8. DOI: 10.1139/cjps-2016-0214.

Coombs, C., J.D. Lauzon, B. Deen and L.L. Van Eerd. (2017). Legume cover crop management on nitrogen dynamics and yield in grain corn systems. Field Crops Research. 201: 75-85. DOI: 10.1016/j.fcr.2016.11.001.

Deen, W., R.C. Martin, D. Hooker, and A. Gaudin. (2016). Crop Rotation Trends: Past, Present and Future Benefits and Drivers. In Bao-Luo Ma (Ed.), Crop Rotations: Farming Practices, Monitoring and Environmental Benefits. Nova Science Publishers.

Eichelmann, E., C. Wagner-Riddle, J. Warland, B. Deen, and P. Voroney. (2016). Comparison of Carbon Budget, Evapotranspiration, and Albedo Effect between the Biofuel Crops Switchgrass and Corn. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 231: 271–282.

Thompson, K.A., B. Deen and K.E. Dunfield. (2016). Soil Denitrifier Community Size Changes with Land Use Change to Perennial Bioenergy Cropping Systems. SOIL. 2: 523-535. DOI: 10.5194/soil-2016-34.

Marsal, F., N.V. Thevathasan, S. Guillot, J. Mann, A.M. Gordon, M. Thimmanagari, W. Deen, S. Silim, R. Soolanayakanahally and D. Sidders. (2016). Biomass yield assessment of five potential energy crops grown in southern Ontario, Canada. Agroforestry Systems. 90 (5): 773-783. DOI: 10.1007/s10457-016-9893-3.

Munkholm, L.J., R.J. Heck, B. Deen, and T. Zidar. (2016). Relationship between soil aggregate strength, shape and porosity for soils under different long-term management. Geoderma. 268: 52-59. DOI: 10.1016/j.geoderma.2016.01.005.

Eichelmann, E., C. Wagner-Riddle, J. Warland, B. Deen, and P. Voroney. (2016). Carbon dioxide exchange dynamics over a mature switchgrass stand. Global Change Biology. 8 (2): 428-442. DOI: 10.1111/gcbb.12259.

Munroe, J., I. McCormick, W. Deen, and K. Dunfield. (2016). Effects of 30-years of crop rotation and tillage on bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidizers. Journal of Environmental Quality. 948: 1-31. DOI: 10.2134/jeq2015.06.0331.

Lee, E., A. Singh, B. Deen, R. Gordon, and G. Parkin. (2016). Involvement of Year-to-Year Variation in Thermal Time, Solar Radiation and Soil Available Moisture in Genotype-by-Environment Effects in Maize. Crop Science. 56 (5): 2180-2192. DOI: 10.2135/cropsci2015.04.0231.

Eichelmann, E., C. Wagner-Riddle, J. Warland, B. Deen and P. Voroney. (2016). Evapotranspiration, water use efficiency, and energy partitioning of a mature switchgrass stand. Agriculture and Forestry Meteorology. 217: 108-119. DOI: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2015.11.008.

Graves, M., B. Deen, E. Fraser and R.C. Martin. (2015). Practical Response: Options for Agriculture. In Caldwell, W. (Ed.), Planning for Rural Resilience: Coping with Climate Change and Energy Futures. University of Manitoba Press.

Wyngaarden, S.L., A.C. Gaudin, W. Deen, and R.C. Martin. (2015). Expanding Red Clover (Trifolium pratense) Usage in the Corn–Soy–Wheat Rotation. Sustainability. 7 (11): 15487-15509. DOI: 10.3390/su71115487.

Sage, R., M. Peixoto, P. Freisen and B. Deen. (2015). C4 bioenergy crops for cool climates, with special emphasis on perennial C4 grasses. Journal of Experimental Biology. 66 (14): 4195-4212. DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erv123.

Roy, P., A. Dutta and B. Deen. (2015). Miscanthus: a promising feedstock for lignocellulosic ethanol industry in Ontario, Canada. AIMS Energy. 3 (4): 562-575. DOI: 10.3934/energy.2015.4.562.

Thilakarathna, M.S., S. Serran, J. Lauzon, K. Janovicek, and B. Deen. (2015). Management of Manure Nitrogen Using Cover Crops. Agronomy Journal. 107 (4): 1595-1607. DOI: 10.2134/agronj14.0634.

Vanhie, M., W. Deen, H. Bohner, and D. Hooker. (2015). Corn residue management strategies to improve soybean yield in northern climates. Agronomy Journal. 107: 1940-1946. DOI: 10.2134/agronj15.0190.

Roy, P., A. Dutta and B. Deen. (2015). An Approach to Identify the Suitable Plant Location for Miscanthus-Based Ethanol Industry: A Case Study in Ontario, Canada. Energies. 8 (9): 9266-9281. DOI: 10.3390/en8099266.

Gaudin, A.C., K. Janovicek, B. Deen and D.C. Hooker. (2015). Wheat improves nitrogen use efficiency of maize and soybean-based cropping systems. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. 210: 1-10. DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2015.04.034.

Roy, P., A. Dutta, and B. Deen. (2015). Greenhouse gas emissions and production cost of ethanol produced from biosyngas fermentation process. Bioresource Technology. 192: 185-191. DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2015.05.056.

Gaudin, A., T. Tolhurst, A.P. Ker, K. Janovicek, R.C. Martin and W. Deen. (2015). Increasing Crop Diversity Improves Yield Stability and Resilience to Weather Variations. PLoS ONE. 10 (2). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0113261.

Vanhie, M., W. Deen, J.D. Lauzon, and D. Hooker. (2015). Effect of increasing levels of maize (Zea mays L.) residue on no-till soybean (Glycine max Merr.) in Northern production regions: A review. Soil & Tillage Research. 150: 201-210. DOI: 10.1016/j.still.2015.01.011.

Nkoa, R., K. Kendall, and W. Deen. (2014). Ecozone dynamics of crop residue biomass, macronutrient removals, replacement costs, and bioenergy potential in corn–soybean–winter wheat cropping systems in southern Ontario. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 94 (5): 981-993. DOI: 10.4141/cjps2013-275.

Gaudin, A.C., K. Janovicek, R. Martin, and W. Deen. (2014). Approaches to optimizing nitrogen fertilization in a winter wheat–red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) relay cropping system. Field Crops Research. 155: 192-201. DOI: 10.1016/j.fcr.2013.09.005.

Brinkman, J.M., W. Deen, J.D. Lauzon, and D.C. Hooker. (2014). Synergism of Nitrogen Rate and Foliar Fungicides in Soft Red Winter Wheat. Agronomy Journal. 106 (2): 491-510. DOI: 10.2134/agronj2013.0395.

Roy, A., C. Wagner-Riddle, W. Deen, J. Lauzon, and T. Bruulsema. (2014). Nitrogen Application Rate, Timing and History Effects on Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Corn (Zea mays L.). Canadian Journal of Soil Science. DOI: 10.4141/CJSS2013-118.

Taina, I.A., R.J. Heck, W. Deen, and E.Y. Ma. (2013). Quantification of freeze–thaw related structure in cultivated topsoils using X-ray computer tomography. Canadian Journal of Soil Science. 93 (4): 533-553. DOI: 10.4141/cjss2012-044.

Kludze, H., B. Deen, A. Weersink, R. Van Acker, K. Janovicek and A. De Laporte, I. McDonald. (2013). Estimating sustainable crop residue removal rates and costs based on soil organic matter dynamics and rotational complexity. Biomass and Bioenergy. 56: 607-618.

Sanscartier, D., B. Deen, G. Dias, H.L. MacLean, H. Dadfar, I. McDonald and H. Kludze. (2013). Implications of land class and environmental factors on life cycle GHG emissions of Miscanthus as a bioenergy feedstock. GCB Bioenergy. DOI: 10.1111/gcbb.12062.

Gaudin, A.C., S. Westra, C. Loucks, K. Janovicek, R.C. Martin and W. Deen. (2013). Improving Resilience of Northern Field Crop Systems Using Inter-Seeded Red Clover: A Review. Agronomy. 3: 148-180.

Kludze, H., B. Deen, A. Weersink, R. Van Acker, K. Janovick, A. De Laporte and I. McDonald. (2013). Impact of land classification on potential warm season grass biomass production in Ontario, Canada. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 93: 1-12.

Munkholm, L.J., R.J. Heck, and B. Deen. (2013). Long-term rotation and tillage effects on soil structure and crop yield. Soil and Tillage Research. 127: 85–91.

Kludze, H., A. Dutta and B. Deen. (2012). Impact of agronomic treatments on fuel characteristics of herbaceous biomass for combustion. Fuel Processing TechnologyDOI: 10.1016/j.fuproc.2012.09.043.

Vyn, R., T. Virani, B. Deen. (2012). Examining the Economic Feasibility of Miscanthus in Ontario: An Application to the Greenhouse Industry. Energy Policy. 50: 669–676.

Munkholm, L.J., R.J. Heck, and B. Deen. (2012). Soil pore characteristics assessed from X-ray micro-CT derived images and correlations to soil friability. Geoderma. 181-182: 22-29.